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人教版高中英语必修一课件:《五大基本句型》

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时间:2019-10-19

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五大基本句型Simple Sentences什么是句子?由词按照一定语法结构组成,是能表达一个完整概念的语言单位。句子的第一个字母必须大写,结尾要有.? !句子包括哪些成分?主语(subject) 谓语(predicate)宾语(object) 表语(predicative)定语(attribute) 状语(adverbial)补语(complement)——基本成分七种英语句子基本结构可归纳成五种基本句型,及其扩大、组合、省略或倒装。掌握这五种基本句型,是掌握各种英语句子结构的基础。The sun rises.I amhungry.I brush my teeth.Mom gives me breakfast.It makes me happy!哪五大基本句型?1.主谓2.主系表3.主谓宾4.主谓宾宾5.主谓宾 宾补1.主谓(vi.)➢主语动作发出者,名词(短语)、代词、不定式、动名词或从句充当。➢谓语主语发出的动作,动词(短语)充当。Eg. Icame, I saw,Iconquered.我来了,我看见了,我征服了!1.主谓(vi.)S(主)vi(谓)1. Time2. The moon3. The man4. Everybody5. Iflies.rose.cooked.laughed.woke.1.此句型谓动能表达完整的意思,叫不及物动词(vi.)。2.后面可跟副词、介词短语、状语从句等修饰。6.They7. He8.Theytalkedfor half an hour.walkedyesterday.stoppedto drink.1.我咳了一夜。2.我的爷爷早晨起得很早。Exercises:3.在过去的十年里,我的家乡已经发生了巨大的变化。I coughedall night.Mygrandfather gets upearly in the morning.Greatchanges have taken placein my home town in the past ten years.2.主谓(vt.)宾eg.WeloveMiss Yang.此句型谓动不能表达完整意思,必须接个宾语,即动作承受者,才能使意思完整,这类动词叫及物动词(vt.)。S vt.(谓)O(宾语)1. I wrote a letter2. Heunderstands English.3. Theycleaned our classroom.➢宾语动作的承受者,名词(短语)、代词、不定式、动名词或从句来充当。81.我看了一部电影。 2.我收到了笔友从澳大利亚寄来的信。3.那位先生能流利地说三种语言。Exercises:I saw a film .That gentlemen can speak three languages fluently.I received a letter from my pen friend in Australia.eg. Knowledgegives me power.3.主谓宾宾主 + 谓(vt)+间宾(人)+直宾(事物)eg.Sheasked me the question.I told him the answer.give me power = give power to me若要先说出直宾(事物),后说间宾(人),要借助介词to/for101.他给你买了本字典。2.奶奶可以给我讲一个有趣的故事。3.她为丈夫做了顿美味的饭菜。He brought you a dictionary.Grandma can tell me an interesting story.She cooked her husband a delicious meal. =She cooked a delicious meal for her husband.Exercises:4.主谓宾 宾补eg. Miss Yang makes me happy.除谓语(vt.)本身需要一个宾语外, 还需要一个词来补充说明宾语,才能表达完整意思。  4.主谓宾 宾补可做宾补的有名词,形容词,副词,介词短语,动词不定式,分词。The sun keepsuswarm.Iheardhimsinging.They madeTommonitor.The teacher asked me to answer the question.1.我们叫她Alice.2.我们大家都认为他是诚实的。3.我们要使学校变得更美丽。Exercises:We will makeour schoolmore beautiful.We callherAlice.All of us consideredhimhonest.➢系动词:联系动词,联系主语和表语➢表语:表明主语特征,类属,状态,身份等5.主系表Miss Yangis a teacher.Miss Yang looks energetic.Smelly tofu smells smelly.系动词本身不能表达完整意义,要形容词、名词、介词短语作表语等来补充说明主语。(1)Be动词:am isare(2)感官动词:look taste sound smell seem feel appear(3)表示状态延续的:remain stay keep stand(4)表示状态变化的become get turn go run fallcome grow常见的系动词有:Correct mistakes:1. Her voice sounds beautifully.2. The whole company was surprising at the news.3. It seem like a good idea.5. The lights still on.6. All the potatoes changed bad.7. Jim was remained a worker.Λbeautifulsurprisedareseemswent1.我的兄弟都是大学生。2.冬季白天短,夜晚长。3.布朗夫人看起来很健康。4.十五岁他就成为有名的钢琴家了。5.孩子们,请保持安静。Exercises:1.My brothersareall college students.2.In winter, the daysareshort and the nightsarelong.3.Mrs Brownlooksvery healthy.4.At the age of fifteen hebecamea famous pianist.5.Children,keepquiet please.分析成分:Things change,But feelings don't.I love you.You make metouched.You are the one.主语(subject)谓语(predicate)宾语(object)表语(predicative)定语(attribute)状语(adverbial)补语(complement)动作发出者主语发出的动作动作的承受者补充说明宾语/主语表明主语性质、特征、状态七种句子基本成分定语(attribute)Miss Yang is anEnglishteacher.You aremyfriend.He wants to teach thelazyboy a lesson.The boywith the uniformis my sudent.名词代词形容词介词短语修饰、限制名词或代词的词(组)或句子。可由名词、代词、形容词、副词、介词短语、不定式、分词,句子充当。1.Light travels most quickly.2.He has lived in the city for ten years.3.If you study hard, you will pass the exam.(副词)(介词短语)状语(adverbial)修饰v., adj., adv., 句子。(句子)可由名词、形容词、副词、介词短语、句子充当。有时间、地点、原因、结果、目的、程度、条件、方式、让步状语。主语(subject)谓语(predicate)宾语(object)表语(predicative)定语(attribute)状语(adverbial)补语(complement)动作发出者主语发出的动作动作的承受者补充说明宾语/主语表明主语性质、特征、状态修饰、限制名词或代词说明动作或状态特征七种句子基本成分同位语(Appositive)对前面名词/代词做进一步解释,名词、数词、代词或句子充当,如:This isBaymax,mypet.插入语(Parenthesis)对一句话做些附加解释,通常有to be honest , I think (suppose, believe---)等,如:To be frank,I don't quite agree with you.总结句子分类1.简单句2.并列句3.复合句一套句子结构。有且只有一个谓语。两套或以上句子结构,句子间有并列连词and/but等连接。主句中又包含一个或多个句子,从句用从属连词引导。He learns German.He learnsEnglishandheenjoysEnglishmusic.He thinksthatEnglish song is beautiful.精神 I feel lonely,I can't get along well with classmates.What's wrong with this sentence?I feel lonely,I can't get along well with classmates.大家好我是一个独立的句子。大家好我也是一个独立的句子。两个句子一般有这两种关系-1.并列关系I feel lonely,I can't get along well with classmates.I feel lonely,andI can't get along well with classmates.I feel lonely,butI can't get along well with classmates.我们是平等的!第一个关系-2.主从关系I feel lonely,I can't get along well with classmates.I feel lonely,forI can't get along well with classmates.I feel lonely,becauseI can't get along well with classmates.我是老大

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