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定语从句

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时间:2011-09-12

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定语从句

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GrammarThe Relative Clause定语从句定语从句的基本概念1定语从句是整个句子充当定语,来修饰名词或代词。被定语从句所修饰的词叫先行词,定语从句一般紧跟先行词。定从一般用关系代词或关系副词引导,关系词在含义上替代先行词,并在定语从句中充当一个成分。定语从句的基本概念2The manwhocame to see me this morning is my cousin.今天早晨来看我的人是我表弟.先行词定语从句关系代词作主语,不可省定语从句的基本概念3关系代词:代人:who(主语/宾语),whom(宾语)代物:which(主语/宾语)代人或物:that(主语/宾语)Whose某人的/某物的,(先行词的所有格);关系代词在从句中做主语,不能省略;做宾语,可以省略。定语从句的基本概念4关系副词:Where表示地点,在定从中作地点状语;When表示时间,在定从中作时间状语;Why表示原因,在定从中作原因状语。关系代词whichwho / whomthat关系副词whenwherewhy诀窍:先找定语从句所修饰的先行词;再判断定从里缺少成分吗?如缺成分,缺的是什么成分?主语还是宾语?1. Do you knowthe lady_____ gave us a speech last week ?(who, that)2.The book______ cost me 1,200yuanis anencyclopaedia.(which, that)3. He isa man_____ we should learn from.(whom, who, that, / )4. That isthe place______ I was born.(where)5. I’ll never forgetthe day______ she said goodbye.(when)6. Thatisthe reason______ I am not in favor of the plan.(why)7. I cannot forgetthe days_____ we spent together.(that, which, / )8.I cannot forget the days_____ we were together.(when)9. I know the forest______ you can find wild strawberries.(where)10. I know the forest_____ you can find wild strawberries in.(which) => I know the forestinwhichyou can find wild strawberries.11. That was notthe reason______ he gave the other day.(that, which)12 .This is the reason_____ may explain his absence.(that, which)13.Have you seenthe movie_____ we are talking about?(which, that, / )Have you seenthe movieabout _____ we are talking?(which;介词一旦提前,宾语不能省略!!!)14. Is shethe teacher______ your parents once talked to?(who, whom, that, / )Is she the teacherto ______ your parents once talked?(whom)15.The tool______ he is working withis called a tin opener.(which, that, / )The toolwith _____ he is working is called a tin-opener.(which)16. The gift was sent by her son____is serving in thearmy.(who, that)17.The gift was sent by her son, who is serving in the army.(16,限制性定从,限定作用;17,非限制性定从,补充修饰作用)18. How many students are there inyour class_____ homes are inPudongnew area?(whose)19. They have invited us to visit their school, which is very kind of them.(非限制性定从中的which还可以指代前面一句话!!!)20. The road was widened, which was exactly what we wanted.True or False? Please refer to your handouts!只用that,不能用which的5种情况A.当先行词是不定代词时(anything,everything,nothing,all,little)1. Do you haveanything thatyou don’t understand?2.Everything thatcan be done has been done.3. I’m not interested inall thathe told me.=I’m not interested in what he told me.(宾从)B.当先行词被最高级形容词所修饰时,1. This is the highest building that I have ever seen.2. Do you think this is the most powerful computer that has ever been invented?C.当先行词被序数词修饰时1. The second question that was discussed at the meeting was the most important.2. This is the last book that is on my reading list.D.当先行词被all,no,only,any,very,just,much等词修饰时This is the very book that I’ve been looking for.This is the only example that I can give you.E.当先行词由人和物共同组成Here are the people and the booksthat / OI love.不能用that的两种情况A.在非限制性定语从句中1. We’ve collected many stamps, which are all very nice.2. This note was left by Mr. Wu, who was here a moment ago.B.在介词后面1. This is country to which he wants to go.2.At our school, there are about200 foreign students, most of whom are from Europe.ASAs也是关系代词,用于1. Such…as…和the same…as…结构中I want to buy such a skirt as you are wearing.I want to buythe sameskirtasyou are wearing.(比较: I want to buythe sameskirtthatyou are wearing. )AS2.或在非限制性定语从句中表示前面整个句子.She has done a good job, as we all know.As we all know, she has done a good job.Way做先行词?Way做先行词,表示方式方法:定语从句中,可以用1. in which2. that3. OWay做先行词?1.Wallanceand Darwin agreed onthe wayin whichdifferent forms of life had begun.2.The way in whichthese comrades look at problems is wrong.3.The way thatthese comrades look at problems is wrong.Way做先行词?4.The waythese comrades look at problems is wrong.5. Musicians rarely agree onthe waya piece of music should be played.CLASSICAL QUESTIONS @,@1. The old woman has two sons, one of ____ is a professor.2. The old woman has two sons, and one of _____ is a professor.(1. whom,2. them)CLASSICAL QUESTIONS @,@3. Do you know why he was absent?(宾从)4. Do you know the reason why he was absent?(定从)5. Do you know the reason which (that) may explain his absence?(定语从句)以上三句含义相同,句式不同。CLASSICAL QUESTIONS @,@6. The reason that you were ill yesterday is not accepted.(你昨天生病的原因没有被接受。)这是一句“同位语”从句的句子,“reason”与“you were ill yesterday”表达的是同等意思,因此关系词不能用“which”,只能用“that”。CLASSICAL QUESTIONS @,@7.The news that our team won the game made us excited.(我们队赢的消息使我们激动.同位语从句)8. The news which (that) I heard through the radio is exciting.(我从广播中听到的消息令人激动.定语从句)CLASSICAL QUESTIONS @,@9.定语从句中的插入语He made a speech, whichI thoughtwas of great importance.Jimmy is the boy, whoeverybody believeswill win the first prize in the singing competition.CLASSICAL QUESTIONS @,@在上述句子中,I thought, everybody believes是插入语,还有I suppose, everybody knows等在定语从句中出现,容易受其迷惑而用错关系词。比如在上述第二句中就不能用“whom”,因为“who”是从句的主语,而“everybody believes”是插入语。因此在有插入语的定语从句中,考虑用什么关系代词或副词时,可暂时不考虑插入语,以免受其迷惑。The End!大结局!谢谢观赏!

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