2017届中考英语语法专题一名词

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  • 课件名称: 2017届中考英语语法专题一名词
  • 课件科目: 九年级英语课件
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专题一 名词



贵阳五年中考命题规律及趋势

编者按:系统分析贵阳近5年试题,重点是单项选择、完形填空、词语运用题,逐命题点统计考查频次,表格直观呈现,并在各命题后批注考情,便于快速把握重点,逐一攻克。


考纲要求 1.可数名词及其单复数 2.不可数名词 3.专有名词 4.名词所有格

考查点 年份 题号 选项设置 分值

名词词

义辨析

2016

40 sister's/sister/sisters' 1分

62 food/money/wallet 1分

67 danger/safety/energy 1分

69 activities/groups/persons 1分

70 health/ocean/industry 1分

2015

56 the beautiful places/their__hometowns/the big cities 1分

57 much__time/much money/much food 1分

59 tall buildings/new__schools/big factories 1分

45 pictures 1分

2014

31 oranges/potato/tomatoes 1分

57 door/wall/window 1分

62 my__key/the ladder/the door bell 1分

65 monkey/man/horse 1分

66 friends/monkeys/changes 1分

68 himself/the__stick/the teacher 1分

2013

31 students/doctors/workers 1分

38 two weeks/three hours/four__miles 1分

60 pictures/stores/prices 1分

63 ideas/news/keys 1分

69 work/fun/money 1分

70 time/advice/stress 1分

2012

34 oranges/tomatoes/broccoli 1分

56 coffee/water/tea 1分

66 friend/driver/dentist 1分

67 invitation/gift/idea 1分

33 five minute's/five__minutes'/five minutes 1分

名词

单复数

2016 86 time→times 1分

2015

88 river→rivers picture→pictures 1分

90 information→information 1分

2014 91 ear→ears 1分

2013 81 foot→feet 1分

  分析贵阳近5年中考真题可以看出,名词为单项选择题的必考点,且近两年偏向名词词义在语境中的辨析,句子设置的语境贴近学生生活实际。对名词单复数的考查会和词义辨析结合,注重对语境的考查。对名词所有格的考查也会和单复数结合,侧重于不规则变化的名词复数。设题形式均为简单句,以两个单句为主,一个句子提供语境,另一个句子设题,词数在9~12个。另外,完形填空和词语运用中也会涉及对名词的考查,完形填空侧重考查名词的词义辨析,而词语运用则侧重对名词单复数的所有格以及名词与其他同类的辨析的考查。

预测2017年贵阳中考的单项选择仍会考查名词词义辨析题,且与语境紧密结合。完形填空也会涉及2~3道名词词义辨析题,且与上下文语境相结合。词语运用中考查名词变复数的可能性较大。



贵阳中考重难点突破

 

名词名词的

分类专有名词

普通名词可数名词个体名词

集体名词

不可数名词物质名词

抽象名词

名词

的数可数名词单数

复数规则变化

不规则变化

不可数名词

名词的所有格's所有格的构成及用法

of所有格的构成及用法

双重所有格

名词的句法作用名词作主语、宾语、表语

名词作定语、同位语、补语、

状语


 

  名词辨析

【满分点拨】

分析贵阳中考近几年单选和完形对名词辨析的考查,主要以语境辨析和近义词辨析为主。

1.语境辨析

分析贵阳中考近几年单选和完形,名词辨析侧重于对语境辨析的考查,同时较少涉及单复数、固定搭配。学生在做题时,首先应读懂句意,抓住题干中关键信息,并分析各个选项的意思,结合日常生活的常识及语境,即可选出正确答案。

2.近义词辨析

近义名词在贵阳中考中没有涉及,老师可根据以下所列常见近义名词适当补充。

1.family,home,house与room

2.noise,sound与voice

3.question与problem

4.work与job

5.message,information与news

6.village,city与countryside

7.clothes,cloth与clothing

8.photo,picture与drawing

9.population与people

10.road,street,path与way

11.exercise,exercises与practice

12.class与lesson

13.country,nation,state与land

14.police与policeman

15.trip,journey,travel与tour

【考点抢测】

( C )1.If Peter comes to us by any chance,please ask him to leave a ________.

A.letter    B.sentence  C.message

( C )2.If you go to visit London,don't forget to bring your ________. Because it rains a lot.

A.passport  B.money  C.umbrella

( A )3.It's your ________ as a teacher to protect your students.

A.duty  B.hobby  C.habit

( B )4.Jennifer takes a lot of exercise every day and she is always full of ________.

A.knowledge  B.energy

C.change

( A )5.It's a good ________ to have breakfast every morning.

A.habit  B.job  C.menu

( C )6.I want to write for international ________ to become a writer.

A.chairs  B.computers  C.magazines

( C )7.The Internet is very useful. We can get a lot of ________ from it.

A.things  B.questions

C.information

( B )8.Lin Shuhao is one of the best basketball ________ in NBA.

A.actors  B.players  C.writers

( B )9.Please pick me up at the ________. My plane arrives at 8:00 a.m..

A.hotel  B.airport  C.museum

( B )10.With the help of his friends,he changed a lot. Maybe that's the ________ of friendship.

A.station  B.power  C.decision

( B )11.I will stay at ________ when the summer holiday comes.

A.house  B.home  C.family

( A )12.It's kind of you to offer your ________ to the old in the bus.

A.seat  B.space  C.place

( C )13.—I'm sorry I went out for a smoke.I was so tired.

—There's no ________ for this while you are at work.

A.cause  B.reason  C.excuse

( C )14.Now there are more and more new drivers,but they haven't got a correct ________ of direction.

A.idea  B.feeling  C.sense

( B )15.The environment is getting worse and worse,so we have to face this ________ right now.

A.question    B.problem

C.issue


  名词的数

【满分点拨】


1.名词的分类


类别 意义 例词

专有名词 表示人、地方、事物、机构、组织等名称的词 Alice,Canada,the Great Wall

普通名词

个体名词 表示个体的人或事物的词 book,desk,table,bike,plane

集体名词 表示一群人或一些事物的词 family,class,police,team,group

物质名词 表示构成各种物体的物质或材料的词 glass,water,air,paper,wood

抽象名词 表示状态、品质、行为、感情等抽象概念的词 danger,health,love,success,interest

2.可数名词单复数变化规律


情况 构成方法 例词

一般情况 加­s cap→caps;dog→dogs;bike→bikes;driver→drivers

以字母s,sh,ch,x等结尾 加­es bus→buses;wish→wishes;watch→watches;box→boxes

以“辅音字母+y”结尾 变y为i,再加­es lady→ladies;century→centuries;family→families;story→stories


续表


情况 构成方法 例词

以f或fe结尾 一般变f,fe为v,再加­es leaf→leaves;life→lives;half→halves;knife→knives

以o结尾 o前为辅音音素时加­es,o前为元音音素时加­s tomato→tomatoes;hero→heroes;potato→potatoes;radio→radios;zoo→zoos;例外,photo→photos;piano→pianos

复合名词

将后一个词变为复数 tooth­brush→tooth­brushes;film­goer→film­goers

两部分都变复数 man doctor→men doctors;woman teacher→women teachers

特殊名词

改变内部元音字母 foot→feet;tooth→teeth;man→men;mouse→mice

词尾加­ren child→children

单复数同形 Chinese→Chinese;sheep→sheep;deer→deer

  注意:(1)由man和woman构成的合成词,其复数形式也是把­man改成­men。但German不是合成词,故其复数形式为直接加­s。

(2)man和woman作定语时,其本身的单复数形式与被修饰词的单复数一致。如:

a man teacher→men teachers(男老师)

a woman cook→women cooks(女厨师)

3.常见不可数名词归纳及用法

(1)常见的不可数名词


物质

名词

食物 bread面包 meat肉 cheese奶酪

液体 milk牛奶 water水 wine酒 oil油

自然物体 soil土壤 sand沙子 wood木头

抽象

名词

情感 joy高兴 friendship友情 peace和平

学科 math数学 geography地理

physics物理 chemistry化学

概念 population人口 knowledge知识

  (2)不可数名词量化的表示

不可数名词的多少可用以下词组来表示:

a block of一块   a bottle of一瓶

a group of一群  a pair of一组,一双,一对

a piece of一片(张,块)    a pile of一堆

短语a pair(piece)of+复数名词作主语时,中心词是pair(piece),故谓语动词用单数;若短语是two pairs(pieces)of+复数名词作主语,则中心词是two pairs(pieces),谓语动词用复数。

(3)可数与不可数易混归纳

exercise(锻炼)→some exercises(练习,训练)

work(工作)→works(著作)

glass(玻璃)→a glass(玻璃杯)

paper(纸)→a paper(报纸,证件,试卷)

wood(木头,木材)→a wood(小树林)

room(空间)→a room(房间)

life(生活)→seven lives(七条生命)

【考点抢测】

一、词语运用。

woman,foot,apple,sheep,glass

1.The students of Grade 7 visited Mike's farm and saw many __sheep____ there.

2.All the __women__ teachers in our school enjoyed themselves on March 8th because it was their own holiday.

3.I'm going to the supermarket to buy some milk and __apples__ this afternoon.

4.Is that pair of __glasses__ a little cheaper?

5.These shoes are too big for my __feet__.

二、单项选择。

( B )6.Hurry up,we just get a few ________ to prepare for the presentation.

A.minute  B.minutes  C.chance

( A )7.I gave a bunch(束) of ________ to my mom on Mother's Day.

A.flowers  B.flower  C.flour

( A )8.—Mom,I've heard that we can't eat ________ these days. Is it true?

—Take it easy. It is safe to eat cooked meat.

A.chicken  B.chickens  C.a chicken

( B )9.—Are there any ________ in your school?

—Yes,there are.

A.Germen  B.Germans  C.German

( C )10.—Do you have any ________?

—Yes,I like chess and drama best.

A.jobs  B.hobby  C.hobbies

  名词所有格

【满分点拨】

含有and的所有格

用and连接两个并列的单数名词表示两人共同拥有某物,这时只在最后一个名词后加's,用A and B's表示。如:

Mrs.King is Lucy and Lily's mother.金女士是露西和莉莉的母亲。

用and连接两个并列名词,表示分别拥有各自的物品时,两个名词都在词尾加's,用A's and B's表示。如:

There are Tom's and Mary's bags.这些是汤姆和玛丽的包。


双重所有格两种形式

of+名词所有格。如:

He is a friend of my brother's.他是我哥哥的一个朋友。

of+名词性物主代词。如:

Is she a daughter of yours?她是你的一个女儿吗?

【考点抢测】

1.One of my __classmates'__ (classmate)homework wasn't handed in today.

2.—When is __Children's__  Day?

—It's on June 1st,Dave.(child)

( B )3.—How far is your home from school?

—It's about two ________ walk.

A.hours  B.hours'

C.hour's

( A )4.On the weekend,________ is so crowded that I can not find my friend.

A.the center of the city

B.city's center

C.city's and center's

( B )5.Mary is ________,so please treat her as yours.

A.a friend of me    B.a friend of mine

C.a friend of you