2017届中考英语语法专题:句子种类(课件及练习)

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  • 课件名称: 2017届中考英语语法专题:句子种类(课件及练习)
  • 课件科目: 九年级英语课件
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专题十二 句子种类
基本句型、疑问句、感叹句、祈使句与倒装句

贵阳五年中考命题规律及趋势

考纲要求 句子种类:1.陈述句 2.疑问句(一般疑问句、特殊疑问句、选择疑问句) 3.祈使句 4.感叹句   
基本句型:1.主语+系动词+表语 2.主语+不及物动词 3.主语+及物动词+宾语    
4.主语+及物动词+间接宾语+直接宾语 5.主语+及物动词+宾语+宾语补足语    
6.there be句型    
考查点 年份 题号 考查角度 分值
倒装句 2016 37 So__am__I/ So do I/So will I 1分
how词组    
2015 47 How often(情景交际) 1分 
2014 46 How long(情景交际) 1分 
感叹句    
2015 44 What a/an+adj.+n. 1分 
2012 35 How+adj.+主语+谓语 1分 
疑问词    
2016 63 how/why/what 1分 
2013 43 疑问词辨析 1分 
  简单句是贵阳中考单项选择的必考点。感叹句是轮考点,语句设置均为2个单句,词数为7~11。另外,连词成句题也会涉及感叹句的考查,且单项选择和连词成句中不会同时出现对感叹句的考查。在连词成句中,感叹句一般都会和祈使句轮流考查,不会同时出现。how词组在单项选择中是偶考点,贵阳5年单项选择中没考过。设题形式均为对话,词数为10~11。
预测2017年贵阳中考情景交际考查how词组的可能性最大。单项选择中仍会考查倒装句。
 

贵阳中考重难点突破
 
句子基本
句型主语+不及物动词
主语+及物动词+宾语
主语+系动词+表语(主语补足语)
主语+及物动词+间接宾语+直接宾语
主语+及物动词+宾语+宾语补足语
种类按使用目的分陈述句
疑问句一般疑问句
特殊疑问句
选择疑问句
反意疑问句
祈使句
感叹句
按句子类别分:简单句、并列句、复合句


 
  基本句型
【满分点拨】
贵阳中考对五大基本句型结构的考查主要体现在连词成句题型中。所以学生对这五大基本句型要熟练掌握并运用。
句型结构 例句
主语+系动词+表语 The bike is new.这辆自行车是新的。
The hat looks nice on you!你戴这顶帽子真好看! 

 
续表
句型结构 例句
主语+不及物动词 He swims in the river every summer.他每年夏天都在这条河里游泳。
主语+及物动词+宾语 Children often sing this song.孩子们经常唱这首歌。
主语+及物动词+间接宾语+直接宾语 She showed her friends all her pictures.她向她的朋友们展示她的照片。
主语+及物动词+宾语+宾语补足语 We keep our classroom clean and tidy.我们保持教室干净整洁。
【考点抢测】
1.good,the,sounds,advice
__The__advice__sounds__good______________________________________________________________________________.
2.a,cold,he,had,yesterday
__He__had__a__cold__yesterday或Yesterday__he__had__a__cold__________________________________________________________________________.
3.use,how,him,to,I,taught,computers
__I__taught__him__how__to__use__computers__________________________________________________________________________.
4.pens,those,she,pass,black,please
__Pass__her__those__black__pens,please或Please__pass__her__those__black__pens__________________________________________________________________________.
5.he,days,three,leave,here,in
__He__will__leave__here__in__three__days或He__is__leaving__here__in__three__days__________________________________________________________________________.
  疑问句
【满分点拨】
1.疑问句的分类
贵阳近5年中考对疑问句的考查主要为一般疑问句和特殊疑问句,且对疑问句的考查方式侧重于情景交际和听力部分。单项选择中对特殊疑问句的考查主要为疑问词辨析。
2.一般疑问句的用法
分类 概念 形式
一般  
疑问句 用yes,no来回答的疑问句叫做一般疑问句 
Be+主语+其他?  
情态动词+主语+动词  
原形+其他?  
助动词+主语+动词原  
形/过去分词+其他?  
如:—Is she from England?她来自英格兰吗?
—Yes,she is.是的,她是。
—Must I finish the report today?我必须今天完成报告吗?
—Yes,you must.是的,你必须。
Did she like to dance when she was young?她小时候喜欢跳舞吗?
Have you been to Tibet?你去过西藏吗?
3.特殊疑问句的用法
分类 概念 形式
特殊  
疑问句 以疑问词开头的疑问句叫做特殊疑问句 
who询问身份  
which询问特定的人或物  
what询问职业或身份  
when询问时间  
where询问地点、位置  
why询问原因  
how询问方式  
如:Who is the girl over there?那边的女孩是谁?
Which color would you prefer,red or yellow?你更喜欢哪种颜色,红色还是黄色?
What are you going to be when you grow up?你长大了将从事什么工作?
When did you go to Shanghai last time?你上次去上海是什么时候?
Where can I get the ticket for the show?我在哪儿可以买到这场表演的票?
Why are you late for the meeting?你为什么开会迟到了?
How do you get to school every day?你每天怎样去上学?
中考常考查的how疑问词组用法辨析
疑问词 含义 用法
how many 多少 提问数量,后跟可数名词复数
how much 多少 提问数量,后跟不可数名词;提问价格,动词随主语而变
how often 多久一次 提问频率
续表
疑问词 含义 用法
how long 多长 提问持续的时间,答语用“for+一段时间”或“since+过去时间点”
how soon 多久 提问将来时间,答语用“in+一段时间”
how far 多远 提问距离
how old 多大 提问年龄
  注意:反意疑问句和选择疑问句也是疑问句的两大类,因贵阳中考不涉及此考点,所以不作讲解。
【考点抢测】
1.does,a,have,he,sister
__Does__he__have__a__sister______________________________________________________________________________?
2.like,us,would,tomorrow,to,you,join
__Would__you__like__to__join__us__tomorrow__________________________________________________________________________?
3.happened,what,you,to
__What__happened__to__you__________________________________________________________________________?
4.do,for,school,what,did,your,you
__What__did__you__do__for__your__school__________________________________________________________________________?
( C )5.—________ do you go to the cinema?
—Once a month.
A.How long      B.How far
C.How often
( B )6.—________ have you been in the sports club?
—Since the first month I came to the school.
A.How old  B.How long
C.How much
( A )7.—________ is this pen?
—It's three dollars.
A.How much  B.How often
C.How old
( A )8.________ do you prefer to use to keep in touch with your friends,QQ or MSN?
A.Which  B.How
C.Where
( C )9.—________ can you finish this English examination?
—In about one and a half hours.
A.How far  B.How often
C.How soon
  感叹句
【满分点拨】
引导词 结构 例句 如何判定
   
what   
how   
What+a/an+形容词+单数可数名词+主语+谓语! What a beautiful present it is!  
多么漂亮的一件礼物啊!   
What+形容词+可数名词复数/不可数名词+主语+谓语! What interesting books they are!多有趣的书啊!What nice music it is!很美妙的音乐!  
How+形容词/副词+主语+谓语! How fine the wea­ther is!天气真好!  
How+形容词+a/an+单数可数名词! How beautiful a present!很漂亮的礼物! 由a,an开头的多用what;形容词直接加名词的,多用how 
  感叹句用法口诀
感叹句,表情感,how,what放句前。
名词词组跟what,how与形副紧相连。
为了句子更简洁,主谓部分也可略。

【考点抢测】
1.a,we,yesterday,had,time,what,wonderful
__What__a__wonderful__time__we__had__yesterday__!
2.today,how,weather,is,the,fine
__How__fine__the__weather__is__today__________________________________________________________________________!
( C )3.________ wonderful concert they are putting on in the city square!
A.How   B.What   C.What a
( A )4.Wow!________ beautiful Chengde is!
A.How  B.What  C.What a
( B )5.________ nice the ice­cream looks!I can't wait to taste it.
A.How a  B.How  C.What a
( B )6.________ good advice the teacher gave me!
A.How  B.What  C.What a
  祈使句与倒装句
【满分点拨】
祈使句表示命令、请求、建议或劝告等。主语通常被省略,谓语动词用原形,句末用感叹号或句号,读降调。
1.祈使句
祈使句句式 肯定形式 否定形式
(Please)+  
动词原形+  
其他  
Please listen to me carefully.请认真听我讲。 Please don't read in the sun.不要在太阳下读书。 
Put away your things.把你的东西收起来。 Don't open the win­dow.不要打开窗子。 
Let+宾语+  
动词原形+  
其他 Let's have another try.让我们再试试。 Don't let him go there alone.不要让他独自去那儿。
No+名词/  
动名词  NO PHOTOS!
禁止照相!  
NO PARKING!  
禁止停车!  
  注意:(1)应答祈使句时要用将来时。如:
—Please remember to take the dog out for a walk every day.请记住每天带着狗出去散步。
—Yes,I will.是的,我会的。
(2)掌握“祈使句+and/or+结果状语”结构。如:Work harder,and you'll get good grades.更加努力,你就会取得好成绩。
2.倒装句
so引导的倒装句
(1)完全倒装:so+助动词/系动词/情态动词+主语。该倒装句的意思是“某某也一样”,上下句中是不同的两个人或物,但发生同样的行为或状况,是表示肯定的倒装。如:Li Hua failed in this English exam,so did I.李华英语考试不及格,我也没及格。
(2)易混句式:so+主语+助动词/系动词/情态动词,意为“确实是……”。该句式表示的是对前面所说的事实加以肯定,上下句中是相同的人或物。如:
—Lucy dances very well.露西舞跳得很好。
—So she does.的确如此。
neither/nor+助动词/系动词/情态动词+主语。该倒装句的意思是“某某也不……”,上下句中是不同的两个人或物,他们的行为或状况一样,是表示否定的倒装。如:He wasn't late for school,neither/nor was I.他上学没迟到,我也没有。
注意:(1)和(2)两种倒装句结构中的助动词、系动词或情态动词在形式上与前面的谓语动词保持一致,但由它们的主语决定单复数形式。
以here,there,out,in,down,up,away,now,then等副词开头也构成倒装句,用两种形式:
(1)副词+动词+名词(完全倒装)
(2)副词+代词+动词(部分倒装)
注意:谓语动词由它们后面的名词或代词决定单复数形式。如:Here are some books.有一些书。Here you are.给你。
【考点抢测】
1.those,books,please,me,pass
__Please__pass__me__those__books/Pass__me__those__books,please__________________________________________________________________________.
2.fridge,these,into,please,the,tomatoes,put
__Put__these__tomatoes__into__the__fridge,please/Please__put__these__tomatoes__into__the__fridge__________________________________________________________________________.
3.mistake,same,make,again,the,don't
__Don't__make__the__same__mistake__again__________________________________________________________________________.
( A )4.Boys and girls,________ in the river.It's not safe.
A.don't swim     B.to swim
C.swim
( C )5.________ harder,and you'll make your dream come true one day.
A.Studying  B.To study
C.Study
( C )6.Not only ________ reading interesting novels but also she can even write some.
A.likes she  B.she likes
C.does she like