2017届中考英语语法专题:非谓语动词(课件和练习)

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课件简介:
  • 课件名称: 2017届中考英语语法专题:非谓语动词(课件和练习)
  • 课件科目: 九年级英语课件
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  • 更新时间: 2017年01月08日
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专题九 非谓语动词


贵阳五年中考命题规律及趋势

考纲要求 动词不定式作宾语、宾语补足语、目的状语   
考查点 年份 题号 选项设置 分值
疑问词+    
不定式 2013 43 how to do/when to do/what__to__do 1分
作宾语    
(固定搭配) 2014 35 visiting/to__visit/visited 1分
表目的 2012 44 to__finish/finished/finishing 1分
作宾补    
(固定搭配)    
2016 35 climbed/chimbing/to climb 1分 
2015 87 study→to study 1分 
2013 95 drink→to drink 1分 
2012 90 get/to get→to get  1分 
  贵阳中考单项选择题和词汇应用对非谓语动词的考查只考动词不定式,如:不定式作主语、宾语、宾语补足语、目的状语等。同时,也涉及到了不定式固定句型和用法的考查,如:固定搭配forget to do sth.,decide to do sth.,would like sb.to do sth.(想让某人做某事);疑问词+不定式when to start(何时开始)。设题形式以单句为主,词数为10~14。
预测2017年贵阳中考的单项选择仍会出一道题考查不定式,考查表目的和作宾补的可能性很大。


贵阳中考重难点突破
 
 
【满分点拨】
1.非谓语动词的定义及句法功能
(1)非谓语动词的定义
非谓语动词是在句子中充当除谓语以外的句子成分的动词形式。
(2)非谓语动词的句法功能
非谓语动词在句中可以充当主语、宾语、表语、补语、定语或状语等成分,即动词的非谓语形式除了不能独立作谓语外,可以承担句子的任何成分。如:
To see is to believe.(作主语和表语)眼见为实。
The boy likes walking to school.(作宾语)那个男孩喜欢步行去学校。
Don't keep us waiting for a long time.(作补语)不要让我们等得太久。
(3)非谓语动词的三种形式
非谓语动词按照其用法分为:动词不定式、分词(现在分词和过去分词)、动名词。按照其形式分为:to do、v.­ing、v.­ed。
2.动词不定式的用法
动词不定式可作主语、表语、宾语、宾语补足语、定语和状语。
(1)作主语。不定式作主语往往用形式主语it代替,作为句子真正主语的不定式则被后置。常用句型:It's+adj.+(for/of)sb.to do sth.。如:It's nice of you to take pictures for us.你真好,给我们照相。
(2)作表语。可放在be动词之后作表语。如:My work is to clean the room every day.我的工作是每天打扫房间。
(3)作宾语。常接不定式作宾语的动词有:decide“决定”,expect“期望”,forget“忘记”,hope“希望”,pretend“假装”,try“尽力”。如:Have you decided to go on a trip to Hong Kong this summer vacation?你决定今年暑假去香港旅行吗?
(4)作宾语补足语。常接不定式作宾语补足语的动词有:ask“要求”,tell“告诉”,want“想要”,teach“教”,wish“希望”,help“帮助”,warn“警告”,invite“邀请”,encourage“鼓励”等。如:Tina told her sister to turn down the TV.蒂娜告诉她姐姐把电视机的音量调小点。
(5)作定语。动词不定式作定语时,要置于被说明修饰的名词之后,作后置定语。如:I am not free now.I have lots of things to do.我现在没有空。我有很多事要做。
(6)作状语。主要作目的状语,也可作结果状语和原因状语。如:They will go to the station to meet the guests.他们将去车站会见客人。(目的状语)
Paul is too excited to say anything.保罗激动得说不出话来了。(结果状语)
I am sorry to hear that your mother was ill in hospital.听说你妈妈生病了我很难过。(原因状语)
注意:在使役动词make,let,have和感官动词see,hear,watch,notice,feel等词后,要把不定式结构中的to省略。如:I saw our English teacher enter the office just now.刚才我看到我们的英语老师走进办公室了。

3.常见只能跟不定式的动词
tell sb. to do sth.告诉某人做某事
ask sb. to do sth.要求某人做某事
invite sb. to do sth.邀请某人做某事
want sb.to do sth.想要某人做某事
teach sb. to do sth.教某人做某事
allow sb. to do sth.允许某人做某事
force sb. to do sth.强迫某人做某事
expect sb. to do sth.期望某人做某事
advise sb. to do sth.建议某人做某事
persuade sb. to do sth.说服某人做某事
would like sb. to do sth.想要某人做某事
wish to do sth.希望做某事
decide to do sth.决定做某事
refuse to do sth.拒绝做某事
learn to do sth.学习做某事
plan to do sth.计划做某事
promise to do sth.承诺做某事
4.动词不定式与动名词作宾语的区别
(1)有些动词既可接不定式也可接动名词形式作宾语,但表达的意思不同。如:
stop doing sth.停止正在做的事
stop to do sth.停下来去做另一件事
try doing sth.尝试做某事
try to do sth.尽力去做某事
forget doing sth.忘了做过某事
forget to do sth.忘了去做某事(未做)
remember doing sth.记得做过某事
remember to do sth.记得去做某事(未做)
need doing sth.需要做某事(被动含义)
need to do sth.需要去做某事(主动含义)
(2)感官动词后接不定式或现在分词
感官动词后既可接不带to的不定式,也可接现在分词;接不定式时指“(看到、听到、见到)全过程”,接现在分词时指“瞬间动作”。如:
I heard the girl singing in the next room.我听到那个女孩正在隔壁房间里唱歌。
I always hear the girl sing in the next room.我经常听到那个女孩在隔壁房间里唱歌。
5.动词不定式的特殊句型
(1)too…to…表示“太……而不能……”。如:The boy is too young to look after himself.那个男孩太小不能照顾自己。
(2)…enough to…表示“……足够……”。如:He is old enough to go to school.他到了上学的年龄了。
(3)Why don't you +不带to的不定式?=Why not+不带to的不定式?如Why don't you get her a photo album?=Why not get her a photo album?为什么不给她买个相册呢?
(4)had better+(not)+不带to的不定式。如:You'd better not stay there today.你今天最好别待在那儿。
(5)prefer to do sth.rather than do sth.“宁愿做某事而不愿做某事”。如:She prefers to receive a small gift that has some thought behind it rather than receive a lot of money.她宁愿收到一份有意义的小礼物也不愿收到一大笔钱。
【考点抢测】
一、词语运用。
discuss,stay,remember
1.He lost his key.It made him __stay__ in the cold air to wait for his wife's return.
2.Vocabulary is very important.Therefore,you'd better try different ways __to__remember__ words and expressions.
3.Our teacher often asks us __to__discuss__ questions in groups.
二、单项选择。
( A )4.________ up early is important for your health.
A.To get   B.Gets   C.Got
( C )5.________ books in the sun is harmful for your eyesight.
A.Reads  B.Read  C.To read
( C )6.When the child saw his uncle,he ran up ________ hello to him.
A.said  B.says  C.to say
( B )7.He hurried back home ________ his schoolbag.
A.fetched  B.to fetch  C.fetching
( A )8.He is too fat.He has decided ________ some exercise to keep healthy.
A.to take     B.not to take
C.take
( C )9.He promised ________ his old friend during his stay in Tianjin.
A.see  B.seeing  C.to see
( C )10.The little boy pretended ________ when his mother came in.
A.sleeping     B.asleep
C.to be asleep
( C )11.It takes me half an hour ________ the piano every day.
A.play  B.playing  C.to play
( C )12.My sister Julia would rather ________ newspapers than watch TV on Sundays.
A.reading  B.reads  C.read
( A )13.Tom,would you please ________ the box?It's for your sister.
A.not open     B.don't open
C.not to open
( C )14.My teacher encouraged me ________ more confident.
A.is  B.be  C.to be
( C )15.My mother often tells me ________ the teachers carefully in class.
A.listen to     B.to listen
C.to listen to
( C )16.Lucy is shy.She would not invite her classmates ________ dancing with her.
A.practice     B.practicing
C.to practice
( C )17.Students should learn how ______ problems.
A.solving     B.can solve
C.to solve
( C )18.Nobody could tell me where ________ the book.
A.buy     B.can buy
C.to buy
( C )19.When I walked past the park,I saw some old people ________ Chinese Taiji.
A.do  B.did  C.doing
( A )20.I found a letter ________ on the floor when I came into the classroom.
A.lying  B.lay  C.lie
( B )21.Our English teacher often says to us,“________ English well is very important.”
A.Learn  B.Learning  C.Learned
( A )22.I'm sleepy.I prefer ________ at home to going out for a walk.
A.sleeping     B.to sleep
C.slept
( A )23.Many young people took part in ________ trees on Tree Planting Day.
A.planting  B.plants
C.to plant