2017届中考英语语法专题:代词(课件和练习)

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  • 课件名称: 2017届中考英语语法专题:代词(课件和练习)
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专题二 代词


贵阳五年中考命题规律及趋势

考纲要求 1.人称代词 2.物主代词 3.反身代词 4.指示代词 5.不定代词(some,any,no) 6.疑问代词    
考查点 年份 题号 考查角度 选项设置 分值
人称、物主     
与反身代词     
2016     
38 人称代词 this/that/it 1分  
57 物主代词 her/his/its 1分  
2015 32 反身代词 myself/himself/herself 1分 
2014     
41 反身代词 his/him/himself 1分  
88 名词性物主代词 I→mine 1分  
2013     
92 反身代词 it→itself 1分  
不定代词与     
相互代词     
2016 94 相互代词 each other 1分 
2014 43 复合不定代词 something__new/nothing new/anything new 1分 
2013 40 复合不定代词 something/anything/everything 1分 
2012 86 相互代词 another/the other→another 1分 
指示代词     
2016 42 疑问代词 who/when/which 1分 
2014 45 指示代词that that/who/where 1分 
2012 37 指示代词that、疑问   
代词what,who that/what/who 1分   
  分析贵阳近5年中考真题可以看出代词是贵阳中考近5年的必考点。在单项选择中每年均会设置两道试题,其中必有一道人称代词或物主代词的考查,另外一道轮流考查不定代词和指示代词。不定代词的考查点偏向指物的不定代词something/nothing/anything/everything的考查,也会涉及普通不定代词both/none/neither/either和相互代词another/other的考查。另外,完形填空中也会涉及不定代词的辨析。
对人称代词与物主代词的考查可以分为以下几种情况:(1)物主代词:考查的四个选项设置均为同一人称的不同形式,且偏向第一人称和第三人称,注重形容词性物主代词、名词性物主代词与人称代词的混合辨析。做此类题时,学生应首先判断句中所缺成分和人称,若其后紧跟名词,则为形容词性物主代词;若其后无名词,而是紧跟介词of或与名词词组并列,则为名词性物主代词。(2)人称代词:主要考查宾格形式,位于介词后或固定结构中。如:introduce sb.to sb.(把某人介绍给某人)。(3)反身代词和指示代词:重点在于基本的词义辨析。
另外,完形填空中也会涉及代词的辨析,学生应联系上下文判断所指人称或所指事物的类别。词语运用偶尔也会涉及人称代词与物主代词的运用。
预测2017年贵阳中考的单项选择题会考查一道人称代词与物主代词的辨析和一道不定代词的辨析。


贵阳中考重难点突破
 
代词人称代词主格(I,you,she等)
宾格(me,you,her等)
物主代词形容词性物主代词(my,your等)
名词性物主代词(mine,yours等)
反身代词(myself,yourself,themselves等)
指示代词(this,that,these,those等)
相互代词(each other和one another)
疑问代词(构成特殊疑问句:who,what等)
不定代词普通不定代词(some,any,few等)
复合不定代词(anyone,nothing等)
连接代词(引导宾语从句:who,what等)
关系代词(引导定语从句:who,whose等)
 
  人称代词、物主代词和反身代词

【满分点拨】
一、人称代词
人称代词有主格和宾格之分,主格在句中作主语和表语;宾格作动词或介词的宾语,也可作表语。
人称代词的人称、数和格的变化如下:

人称    
单数 复数   
主格 宾格 主格 宾格 
第一人称 I me we us
第二人称 you you you you
第三人称    
he him   
she her   
it it   
they them   
二、物主代词
物主代词分为形容词性物主代词和名词性物主代词。形容词性物主代词一般用于名词前修饰名词;而名词性物主代词本身就具有名词的性质,相当于“形容词性物主代词+名词”。
如:
This is my red schoolbag.=This red schoolbag is mine.这个红色的书包是我的。
物主代词具体分类如下:

人称 数 形容词性
物主代词 名词性物 
主代词  
第一人称  
单数形式 my mine
复数形式 our ours
第二人称  
单数形式 your yours
复数形式 your yours


人称 数 形容词性
物主代词 名词性物 
主代词  
第三人称  
单数  
形式  
his his 
her hers 
its its 
复数形式 their theirs
三、反身代词
1.反身代词的单复数形式表格如下:

数人称 单数 复数
第一人称 myself我自己 ourselves我们自己
第二人称 yourself你自己 yourselves你们自己
第三人称 himself他自己 
herself她自己  
itself它自己 themselves他们自己 
她们自己  
它们自己  
  2.反身代词的用法
I hope you can enjoy yourselves at the party.(作宾语)
The children made model planes themselves.(作同位语)
That poor boy was myself.(作表语)
3.反身代词的常用词组
teach oneself自学
learn by oneself自学
enjoy oneself过得愉快;玩得高兴
help oneself to随便吃(用)
come to oneself苏醒
hurt oneself受伤
by oneself独自
【考点抢测】
一、词语运用。
I,they,she,it,we
1.My parents showed __me__ some old pictures that brought back sweet memories.
2.There are lots of restaurants in our town.And most of __them__ are clean and cheap.
3.Many people think Peng Liyuan is the most beautiful First Lady.And __her__ songs are also well­known.
4.Kitty is the name of my pet.__Its__ nose is very funny.
5.It's very important for us to learn how to learn by __ourselves__.
二、单项选择。
( A )6.My daughter is a great fan of Justin.________ has most of Justin's CDs.
A.She     B.Her     C.He
( C )7.We have noticed the problems,and we will discussed ________ at the meeting.
A.you  B.it  C.them
( C )8.It is a good habit of ________ to read a few lines before going to bed.
A.I  B.my  C.mine
( B )9.Mandy loves to see films.Transformers(变形金刚) is ________ favorite movie.
A.she  B.her  C.hers
( B )10.Mom,I'm old enough to wash ________ own clothes and ________.You can have a rest after work.
A.my;your    B.my;yours
C.your;my
( C )11.Boys,don't lose ________ in playing Angry Birds.It is bad for your eyes to play computer games for a long time.
A.himself    B.yourself
C.yourselves
( C )12.We had a big meal and enjoyed ________ at the party last night.
A.themselves    B.myself
C.ourselves
  不定代词
【满分点拨】
不指明代替任何特定名词的代词叫做不定代词,兼有名词和形容词的功能,在句子中主要用作主语、宾语、表语或定语。不定代词分为普通不定代词和复合不定代词。
一、普通不定代词
1.初中阶段常见的普通不定代词如下表:

some,any few,little other,another
  
many,much either,neither 
each,every both,all none,one
  2.常考的几组易混不定代词辨析
some与any,both,either与neither

序号 不定代词 用法 例句
1   
some 用于肯定句或表示请求的疑问句中 Tom has some story books. 
Would you like some milk?   
any 一般用于疑问句或否定句中 Are there any apples on the tree? 
There aren't any buses.   
2   
both 表示“两者都” Tom's parents are both doctors. 
either 表示“两者中的任何一个”,作主语时谓语动词用单数 Either of the books is interesting. 
neither 表示“两者都不”,作主语时谓语动词用单数 Neither of his friends has come yet. 
all,any与none

相同点 均用于三个或三个以上的人或物
不同点 
all 指“三个或三个以上的人或物”,作主语时,谓语动词用复数,其反义词为none
any 指“三个或三个以上的人或物中的任意一个”,只能作定语
none 指“三个或三个以上的人或物中没有一个(全否定)”,相当于not any


注意:(1)no one用来指人,不能接of短语,当它作主语时,谓语动词用单数形式。
(2)none不仅指人也可以指物,其后常跟of短语。none代替不可数名词作主语时,谓语动词用单数形式;代替可数名词作主语时,谓语动词用单复数均可。
如:None of the information is correct.信息都不正确。
None of the soldiers are(is) afraid of difficulties.战士们都不怕困难。
few,a few和little,a little
如:The problem is too difficult.Few students can work it out.这道题太难了。没几个学生能做出来。
She says little but does much.她说得少,做得多。
each与every

单词 用法及意义 例句
each 指两者或两者以上的人或事物中的每一个;意为“每个,各自的”,强调个体 There are trees and flowers on each side of the street.街道的每一边都有树和花。
every 强调整体,表示“每个都”;指三者或三者以上的人或事物中的每一个 Every student has read a poem.每个学生都读了一首诗。
二、复合不定代词
复合不定代词一直是贵阳中考的常考点,学生对此要熟练掌握。常见的复合不定代词如下:

somebody 
(某人) anybody
(任何人) nobody
(没有人) everybody
(每人) 
someone 
(某人) anyone
(任何人) no one
(没有人) everyone
(每人) 
something 
(某事) anything
(任何事) nothing
(没有东西) everything
(每一件事) 
  

1.由some构成的复合不定代词一般用于肯定句中,也可用于建议或请求的疑问句中,表示说话人希望得到肯定的回答。
2.由any构成的复合不定代词通常用于否定句和疑问句中。
3.复合不定代词只能作主语、宾语和表语,不能作定语。作主语时,谓语动词一般用单数。
4.当形容词或else(另外)修饰复合不定代词时,形容词或else必须放在复合不定代词的后面。
【考点抢测】
( A )1.The girl in purple is new here,so ________ people know her.
A.few  B.a few  C.little
( C )2.________ of the computers are working because of the power failure.
A.All  B.Both  C.None
( C )3.There were only two paintings for sale and he bought ________.
A.all  B.any  C.both
( B )4.—How did you get the MP4,from a shop or by TV?
—________.I always like shopping online.
A.None  B.Neither  C.Both
( A )5.—Do you think ________ of the students can take part in the Marathon Skating?
—Certainly they can.In fact,they make good use of ________ skating lesson.
A.each;every  B.every;each
C.each;all
( A )6.They are able to talk openly to one another whenever ________ of them feels hurt.
A.either  B.both  C.neither
( C )7.—Tom,supper is ready.
—I don't want to eat ________,mom.I'm not feeling well.
A.nothing  B.something
C.anything
( A )8.________ is waiting for you at the gate.He wants to say thanks to you.
A.Somebody  B.Anybody
C.Everybody
( A )9.You don't have a drink.Can I get you ______?
A.something  B.anything
C.nothing
( C )10.—What else do you want?
—________ else.I think I've got everything ready.
A.Everything  B.Something
C.Nothing
  指示代词和疑问代词
【满分点拨】
一、指示代词
1.指示代词的分类

代词 用法 例句
it 特指上下文提到的对象是同一事物 The book is mine.It's very interesting.
one 泛指上下文提及的同类事物中的一个,同类而不同一 —Who has a novel named Tiny Times?
—I have one.  
that 常用于比较结构中,代替前面提到的名词,以避免重复 The weather in Beijing is colder than that in Shenzhen.
this 常用来指代离自己较近的人或物 This is my friend.
  2.it的常见用法
it可替代动词不定式作句中的形式主语或宾语,也可用于某些固定句型中。
(1)用作形式主语,常用于下列句型中:
①It's+adj.(for sb.)+to do sth.
It's important for us to work hard.对我们来说努力工作是重要的。
②It's time to do/for /that…
It's time to get up.到起床的时间了。
It's time for lunch/that we go home.到吃午饭的时候了。/到回家的时间了。
③It seems that…
It seems that he is quite happy.他看起来似乎很高兴。
④It's one's turn to do sth.
It's your turn to sing.现在轮到你唱了。
⑤It's+adj.+that从句
It is necessary that we students do some reading every day.我们学生每天读书是必要的。
(2)作形式宾语
Do you think it necessary to learn to wait in line?你认为学会排队是必要的吗?
I found it important to learn English well.我发现学好英语很重要。
I think it necessary that we take plenty of hot water every day.我认为每天多喝开水是有必要的。
二、疑问代词

疑问  
代词 主要用法 例句
who 作主语、表语、宾语(作宾语时在口语中不能放在介词后) Who wants to go with me?
whom who的宾格形式,作宾语 To whom are you talking?
whose who的所有格形式,作表语、定语 Whose book is this?
what/  
who  
what询问某人的职业 —What's your father? 
—He is a worker.  
who询问某人的身份、姓名 —Who is the boy under the tree? 
—He is Li Ming.  
what/  
which  
what指不定数目中的“哪一个,哪些;什么”,没有一定范围的限定 What would you like? 
which“哪一个,哪一些”,指在一定范围内特指的人或物 Which one do you like best? 
  相对于疑问代词而言,初中阶段还有两个疑问副词经常在考试中出现,学生也应该重点掌握,第一个是how,通常表示方式。另一个是where,表示地点。
【考点抢测】
( B )1.________ is time for us to have classes.
A.One  B.It  C.Them
( A )2.Harry Potter is such an interesting book that lots of teenagers like to read ________.
A.it  B.this  C.that
( C )3.My friend has a lot of comic books.I want to have ________,too.
A.this  B.it  C.one
( B )4.She is very friendly,and ________ is why we all like her.
A.this  B.that  C.these
( C )5.—________ would you like to choose to live in,Chengdu,Beijing or Shanghai?
—Chengdu,I think.
A.How  B.What  C.Which
( B )6.—________ are they?
—They are Chopsticks Brothers who sings the song Little Apple.
A.What  B.Who  C.How